Battle of Malvern Hill 30 June 1862
After the fighting at Seven Pines and Gaines’ Mill, McClellan’s Army of the Potomac “changed base” to the James River and headed for its new supply point at Harrison’s Landing. On 30 June, the army arrived at Malvern Hill just north of the landing and prepared defenses on the crest of the hill. The 11th U.S. Infantry was detailed to reinforce Gouveneur Warren’s now depleted brigade of New York Zouaves in the valley to the west of the hill. Warren’s brigade was to defend the approach along the River Road. That afternoon, the leading elements of Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia, the division of Theophilus H. Holmes, arrived on the River Road and deployed to attack. The skirmishers and battle line of Warren’s command engaged Holmes’ men with heavy rifle fire, but it was the Federal cannoneers and the U.S. Navy gunboats on the James River that did the most damage and caused Holmes to retreat.